Glossery automotive design and coachbuilding
A categorization based on overall form design using rough rectangle volumes. In the case of the One-Box, also called a monospace or monovolume, it is a single continuous volume. Slight wedge formed front or rear are still generally placed in this category. e.g., Bus, original Ford Econoline or Renault Espace. The equivalent French term is volume, which you will sometimes see used by the British: “1-volume form”.
A categorization based on overall form design using rough rectangle volumes. In the case of the Two-box form, there is usually a “box” representing a separate volume from the a-pillar forward and second box making up the rest. e.g., Station Wagon, Shooting-brake, Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion. The equivalent French term is volume, which you will sometimes see used by the British: “2-volume form”.
A categorization based on overall form design using rough rectangle volumes. In the case of the Three-box form, there is a “box” delineating a separate volume from the a-pillar forward, a second box comprising the passenger volume, and third box comprising the trunk area — e.g., a Sedan. The equivalent French term is volume, which you will sometimes see used by the British: “3-volume form”.
The line running over the car, from headlight to taillight, tracing the car’s silhouette. An example can be found on the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion.
The critical relationship between front wheels and the windshield. The most notable differences can be seen between cars with front-engine, front-wheel drive layout and front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout: the former tend to have longer front overhangs with a smaller axis-to-dash ratios, while the latter have shorter front overhangs with much greater axis-to-dash ratios. The Breadvan Hommage has a typical front-engine rear-wheel drive layout. Electric cars like the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion can have different proportions not relating to their engine types.
The rear lamp. A typical and iconic setup can be seen on the Breadvan Hommage.
A demarcation or crease between a vehicles body panels and the side windows. An example can be found on the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion.
A tangent break feature line running along the centreline of a car. This kind of feature can be seen on many modern Vauxhall, Opel and Chrysler models. Literally derived from the break found on the rear side of a cricket bat.
The trim or bodywork that surrounds a light, holds the face of an instrument in position, or decoratively conceals gaps between bodywork and components as an escutcheon. Often chrome or plastic. Examples of these can be found on the Breadvan Hommage dashboard.
The housing for the instrument cluster on top of or as part of the dashboard. For instance, the all-digital Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion instrument cluster.
(contemporary) See brightwork. May also refer to the strong use of jewelled lighting. Examples are the bold chrome outline of the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion and the interior jewelry found on the Breadvan Hommage.
The hood of the vehicle. This could be made out of many different materials. Think of aluminium, carbon fibre and metal. For instance the long bonnet on Adventum Coupe.
The trunk or liftgate of the vehicle. Made bespoke for the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion.
Anything reflective added to a car to enhance appearance. May also be called chrome. We proposed different ideas for the interior found in the Breadvan Hommage.
Body in White. Base chassis before customisation. Examples can be found on the pages of the Breadvan Hommage.
A type of door sometimes seen on high-performance cars. They are similar to scissor doors. While scissor doors move straight up via hinge points at the bottom of the A-pillar, butterfly doors move up and out via hinges along the A-pillar. An example of scissor doors can be found on Lamborghini’s. whilst the i8 has butterfly doors.
Short for cabin. The enclosed compartment of a vehicle which contains the driver and passengers. When working on the Future London Taxi the cabin was a major focal point.
The cab of the vehicle is moved to the rear of the vehicle. Cars such as a 1970s Corvette could be considered cab back design.
The cab of the vehicle is pushed forward. This design aesthetic was popular with Chrysler in the 1990s with the introduction of their LH platform cars.
Bodywork of a vehicle. Also the workshop at which automotive body work is built on a prototype or low volume production basis, typically with extensive handwork.
A line creased into the side of a car to give it visual interest. (interchangeable with swage line) Sometimes implemented by a rubbing strip. A typical example of the character line can be found on our Adventum Coupe.
Brightwork using chrome plating. The can be found on both exterior and interior of Adventum Coupe, the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake conversion and Breadvan Hommage.
Material (usually plastic) added to exterior of the car which isn’t structurally necessary. May be functional to keep out dirt/debris as in underbody cladding, or may be cosmetic.
Generally used in a car or truck for heating and cooling inside car environment according to the passenger requirements. Basically it is divided into different modes, blower speed functions, AC, temperature, and fresh recirculation of air. Worldwide control panel manufacturers are BHTC, Delphi, Visteon, Valeo, etc. The Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake has a fully digital control panel.
The base of the windshield.
A slang term for chrome conical shaped styling elements which began to appear on the front bumper/grille assemblies of certain American automobiles following World War II. The term is derived from the notable physical attributes of Dagmar, a buxom early 1950s television personality known for low-cut gowns and pronouncedly conical bra cups.
Daylight Opening (DLO)
US DOT Term: For openings on the side of the vehicle, other than a door opening, the locus of all points where a horizontal line, perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal centerline, is tangent to the periphery of the opening. Adventum Coupe has a strong horizontal DLO. The one on the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake is emphasized by a chrome surrounding. US DOT Term: For openings on the front and rear of the vehicle, other than a door opening, daylight opening means the locus of all points where a horizontal line, parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline is tangent to the periphery of the opening.
The critical relationship between front wheel centers and the windshield base. The most notable differences can be seen between cars with front-engine, front-wheel drive layout and front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout: the former tend to have longer front overhangs with a smaller dash-to-axle ratios, while the latter have shorter front overhangs with much greater dash-to-axle. Most so called premium vehicles (equipped with rear wheel drive) feature a relatively long dash-to-axle ratio. This means Adventum Coupe, the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake and Breadvan Hommage all three have a great dash-to-axle ratio.
The horizontal surface at the rear of the car, which usually serves as the trunk lid.
The area behind the rear door on a four-door car. This area is part of the quarter panel just behind the door and in front of the rear wheel house.
Down the Road Graphics (DRG)
The styling of the front end of the car, which people will instantly recognize and associate with a manufacturer. For example, the grille, lights and sometimes the DLO. Adventum Coupe has a clean and simple horizontal DRG. Whilst the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake has more focus in the headlights. The Breadvan Hommage has bespoke headlights and a unique DRG.
A convertible. At Niels van Roij Design we can redesign both inside and outside of your convertible or cabriolet automobile.
An external structure added to increase streamlining, deflect wind, and reduce drag.
The body-skin panel at the front of the car.
A car body style whose roofline slopes continuously down at the back found on cars with a single convex curve from the top to the rear bumper.
Fender (wings, UK)
Term for cowl covering the wheels of the vehicles. In more modern automobiles, this refers generally to the body panel or panels starting at the front “bumper” to the first door line excluding the engine hood. The opposite of the fender is the “quarter panel”.
A design used in older (pre-unibody) cars, trucks, and SUVs. The power train and body are mounted to a rigid structural framework called a rail.
A vent on the side of the fender that can be used as hot-air outlet, but usually decorative. Adventum Coupe has had the original Range Rover faux gill units removed. Whilst Breadvan Hommage has unique gills in the fenders and side panels.
The glassed-in upper section of the car’s body. Daylight Opening (DLO) in turn describes the actual window areas only.
Car doors that are hinged at the roof rather than the side, as pioneered by the 1952 Mercedes-Benz 300SL race car. Opening upwards, the doors evoke the image of a seagull’s wings.
A coupe or sedan lacking a centre window post between the front windshield post and the rearmost window post or body section.
(1) The structural roof beam above the windshield. (2) The section of exhaust piping attached to the cylinder head.
BMW’s trademark reverse-sweep kick at the bottom of last roof pillar.
H-point (or HP (Hip Point))
The pivot point between the torso and upper leg portions of the body, either relative to the floor of the vehicle or relative to the height above pavement level, as used in vehicle design. Adventum Coupe has a high HP. The Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake and Breadvan Hommage has low HP’s.
Hood (Bonnet in English speaking countries)
The engine cover on vehicles when the engine is located forward or aft of the passenger compartment. Adventum Coupe and Breadvan Hommage have long hoods. Likewise, the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake has a long bonnet, however no engine sits underneath.
Heater, ventilation and air condition. A major package constraint both technically as well in interior design.
Instrument Panel. The dashboard is termed the instrument panel in the automotive industry. Sometimes this term is confused with the instrument cluster, the group of speedometer, odometer and similar devices generally behind the steering wheel.
A car body style that calls for a body with smooth contours that continues to a tail that is abruptly cut. Breadvan Hommage has a kammback or kammtail.
Plastic clips onto the base of the windscreen under the bonnet to protect from leaves and flowers.
Bonded to the base of the windscreen to provide a mounting surface for the leafscreen
A distinctively shaped inlet that is flush and begins with a narrow, shallow inset and becomes progressively wider and deeper. The duct was developed to introduce cooling air into aircraft engine nacelles, while increasing the drag of the nacelle only minimally. The duct was developed at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).
The distance the car’s body extends beyond the wheelbase at the front (front overhang) and rear (rear overhang). In car style design terms, this is the amount of body that is beyond the wheels or wheel arches. Adventum Coupe has a short frontal overhang and slightly longer rear overhang. The Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake features a long rear overhang. The slanting nose on the Breadvan Hommage means a relatively long frontal overhang is present.
Black graphite printed onto the glass to hide unsightly areas and improve aesthetics. This can be used as well for tiny easter eggs. Surprices within the design, embedded in the glass.
An open vehicle, usually with 4 doors, with a removable and/or retractable cloth top and a windshield characterized by the lack of integrated glass side windows. Contemporary uses of this name do not always follow this original description or apply to an open vehicle.
A structural member that connects the roof to the body of the car. Pillars are usually notated from front to back alphabetically (e.g. the A-pillar joins the windshield to the front most side windows, the B-pillar is next to the front occupants’ heads, etc.). Adventum Coupe has a upright A pillar. The Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake features a very fast D-pillar. The A-pillar on the Breadvan Hommage will be painted black to form a wraparound windshield.
US DOT Term: Means any structure, excluding glazing and the vertical portion of door window frames, but including accompanying moulding, attached components such as safety belt anchorages and coat hooks, that (1) supports either a roof or any other structure (such as a roll-bar) above the driver’s head or (2) is located along a side edge of a window.
The area at the base of the windshield where the wipers are parked. Also refers to the main chamber in an intake manifold.
A 1930s–1960s design genre when distinct running boards and fully articulated fenders became less common and bodywork began to enclose the full width and uninterrupted length of a car in a markedly bulbous, slab-sided fashion.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid vehicle that can be plugged into the electric grid to recharge its battery to reduce gasoline usage. Niels van Roij Design has not yet coachbuilt a one-off plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. However, we have worked on a full electric shooting brake, based on the Tesla Model S.
All the components that generate power and deliver it to the tyres. Adventum Coupe is powered by a Supercharged V8, the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake by an electric engine and Breadvan Hommage by a V12.
(or rear quarter panel) refers to the panel at the back sides starting at the rear edge of the rearmost doors, bordered by at top by the trunk (boot) lid and at bottom by the rear wheel arches ending at the rear bumper. This is the opposite of the fender. Literally, the term originally referred to the rear quarter or the car’s length.
The first application of the term rake in vehicles was probably the tilting back of the windshield’s top. Nowadays rake refers to the angle between the overall vehicle and the horizontal axis of the ground. If the back is higher than the front, the vehicle is said to have positive rake; if the front is higher than the back, this is negative rake. In early hot rod and custom cars, positive rake was created by varying tire size, and/or by suspension modification. In today’s body design, positive rake is integral in some vehicles’ styling, e.g. Mercedes E350 sedan, circa 2012/13. Rake also applies to the back of the car. Our Breadvan Hommage has a negative rake.
An open vehicle, usually with 2 doors, with a removable and/or retractable cloth top and a windshield characterized by the lack of integrated glass side windows. Contemporary uses of this name do not always follow this original description. A classical roadster is a two-seater with a long hood and a short back, which means the driver is sitting in the rear of the vehicle (close to the rear axle). Usually it is a rear-wheel-driven car.
The body section below the base of the door openings sometimes called the “rocker panels”, or “sills”.
Body armor protecting the Rocker, found mostly in off-road vehicles. Term coined by engineers at MetalCloak.
Plastic/rubber line or moulding to prevent side-swiping along the doors.
Saab hockey stick
The hockey stick is an automotive design feature seen on nearly all Saab automobiles. It is a C-pillar curve from the base of the rear passenger window that resembles the shape of an ice hockey stick or the Nike swoosh symbol.
(Lamborghini doors) are automobile doors that rotate vertically at a fixed hinge at the front of the door, rather than outward as with a conventional door.
Inset or protrusion that implies the intake of air. May be functional for cooling/ventilation or purely ornamental. Also Shaker scoop.
Headlamps styled along a V-shape as viewed from the front, giving the impression of a scowl.
The part of the body on a convertible or roadster where the windscreen is mounted. The term is used primarily in the UK.
Once a vehicle designed to carry hunters and sportsmen; now a station wagon or vehicle combining features of a station wagon and a coupe. Our Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake is a great example.
The line or “shoulder” formed by the meeting of top and side surfaces extending from hood/fender shoulder to boot-lid/quarter-panel shoulder. The strongest example of this feature can be found on more modern of Volvo Cars. Adventum Coupe has a strong but subtle shoulder line. The shoulder line on the Tesla Model S based Shooting Brake is small, whilst the Breadvan Hommage has almost non around the passenger area. The rear hips are very strong however.
The body section below the base of the door openings sometimes called the “rocker panels”, or “rockers”.
Imaginary line drawn following the bottom edge of the greenhouse glass.
A line extending from the C-pillar down and around the rear wheel well.
A convertible top which is made out of flexible materials like PVC or textile.
Side covers for wheel arches, hiding the wheel — usually rear only. Also called fender skirts.
A raised lip or wing which is used to ‘spoil’ unfavourable air movement across the body. Some designs are more functional than others.
Staggered wheel fitment
The front and rear wheels are different widths. On sporty rear-wheel-drive cars, the rear tires are usually wider than the front.
Crease in the sheet metal intended as a “speed line” styling feature. Exemplified in the doors of the Ferrari Testarossa.
Rear-hinged doors, opening from the front of the car. If accidentally opened while driving at a high speed, such doors would be blown backward. One of the future Niels van Roij Design coachbuilt cars will feature this unique idea.
Crease or curvature in the side of the body used to create visual distinction. Sometimes the crease is functional and improves rigidity of the outer body (interchangeable with character line).
A negative flick-out to a flat surface which frames trim sections or venting.
Also called quarter glass; fixed glass located in between the side-door and boot.
The distance across the car between the base of the left and right wheels (like wheelbase, but side-to-side). Our Breadvan Hommage has extra wide track, compared to the OEM vehicle.
A typically large vehicle built using frame-on-rail construction consisting of a cab and a separate bed for cargo.
(Boot in UK) Compartment for storage of cargo which is separate from the cab.
Replacement fenders found on off-road vehicles designed as part of body armor for off-road vehicles. Used to protect the thin sheet metal bodies from damage while off-roading.
Generally refers to the way the sides of a car rounds inward toward the roof, specifically of the greenhouse above the beltline. This term is borrowed from nautical description of naval vessels.
The shape of the rocker panel as it curves inward at the lower edge.
Shape of the car as seen in the side profile. May be positive, negative or neutral. If the front is lower than the rear, then it is wedge-positive. If the rear is lower it is wedge-negative. If the car appears level from front to rear, then it is wedge neutral.
The visible opening in the side of a car allowing access to the wheel. The coachbuilt Adventum Coupe has softly ronded wheel arches.
Wheel arch gap
The space between the tire and the wheel well. Currently there is a trend towards smaller wheel arch gaps. Sometimes referred to as Dead Cat Space due to the fact that, in winter, many domestic cats try to seek shelter in wheel wells of recently parked cars in an attempt to stay warm.
The distance front to back measured from where the front and rear wheels meet the ground.
Wheel well (also wheelhouse, wheelhousing, or bucket)
The enclosure or space for the wheel.
US DOT Term: Molding of any material between the windshield glazing and the exterior roof surface, including material that covers a part of either the windshield glazing or exterior roof surface.